Pooling with Stochastic Spatial Sampling
Feature pooling layers (e.g., max pooling) in convolutional neural networks (CNNs) serve the dual purpose of providing increasingly abstract representations as well as yielding computational savings in subsequent convolutional layers. We observe that this regularly spaced downsampling arising from non-overlapping windows, although intuitive from a signal processing perspective (which has the goal of signal reconstruction), is not necessarily optimal for learning (where the goal is to generalize). We study this aspect and propose a novel pooling strategy with stochastic spatial sampling (S3Pool), where the regular downsampling is replaced by a more general stochastic version. We observe that this general stochasticity acts as a strong regularizer, and can also be seen as doing implicit data augmentation by introducing distortions in the feature maps.
 Zhai, Shuangfei, Hui Wu, Abhishek Kumar, Yu Cheng, Yongxi Lu, Zhongfei Zhang, and Rogerio Feris. “S3pool: Pooling with stochastic spatial sampling.” CVPR 2017